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Referencing

Harvard and APA Style

 

When using sources (journals/books/websites etc.) there are two main elements you need to reference in the main body of your text.
The first is the surname of the author, the second is the date of publication of the source.
There are two ways in which you can reference a source in the text you are writing. 
The first involves actively talking about the author in the text. For example: Smith (2010) argues for the importance of referencing when writing academic work. 
The second involves making an argument followed by the reference: For example: The importance for referencing scholarly work is well argued (Smith, 2010).
At the end of your work whether that is a essay, report, dissertation or a presentation. You should include a reference page where you list in alphabetical order all the sources you used in your work. The sources you use in your work can be any of those listed below. Scroll down to find information on this page on how to reference each source.

 
journal.PNG

Journal Article

Order:

  1. Author(s) of journal article - write the surname followed by the initial of the first name

  2. Year of publication - you must place this in brackets i.e. (2018) 

  3. Title of article 

  4. Title of journal - format this in italic  

  5. Volume number followed by a comma

  6. Issue number in round brackets followed by colon 

  7. Page numbers 

Example: 

Vromen, A., Xenos, M.A. & Loader, B. (2015) Young people, social media and connective action: from organisational maintenance to everyday political talk. Journal of Youth Studies, 18 (1): 80-100.

Book

Order

  1. Author(s) - write the surname followed by the initial of the first name

  2. Year of publication - you must place this in brackets i.e. (2016)

  3. Title of the book - format this in italic

  4. Edition - this only applies when the book has more than one edition published.

  5. Place of publication - followed by colon 

  6. Publisher

 
Example: Hodkinson, P. (2016) Media, Culture and Society: an introduction. 2nd edition. London: Sage Publications.

Open Book
Ebook Reader

Electronic Book

Order

  1. Author(s) - write the surname followed by the initial of the first name

  2. Year of publication - you must place this in round brackets i.e. (2009) 

  3. Title of book - format this in italic

  4. Name of e-book collection (if it has one)

  5. Then write: [Online]

  6. Available at: provide URL from where you accessed the book

  7. Then write: (Accessed: insert here the date in full when the electronic book was accessed by you)

 
Example: Smith, M., Davidson, J., Cameron, L. and Bondi, L. (2009) Emotion, place and culture. Ebrary [Online].  Available at: (Accessed: 30th August 2012).

Chapter in edited book

Order

  1. Author(s) of chapter - write surname of the author followed by their initial of their forename 

  2. Year of publication - you must place this in round brackets i.e. (1981)  

  3. Title of the chapter - placed in single quotation marks 

  4. Then write the word -in

  5. Editor(s) of book - write surname of the editor(s) followed by their initial of their forename 

  6. Then write the word - eds. 

  7. Title of book - format this in italic  

  8. Place of publication

  9. Publisher

  10. Page numbers of the chapter that was used i.e. pp.28-52. 

 
Example: Hall, S. (1981) ‘The Whites of Their Eyes: Racist Ideologies and the Media’ in Bridges, G. & Brunt, R. eds. Silver Linings, London: Lawrence & Wishart. pp.28-52. 

Several Open Books
Laptop Writing

Website/Webpage


Order:

  1. Author(s) - write the surname first followed by the initial of the first name

  2. Year the webpage was last updated - put the year in round brackets i.e. (2018) 

  3. Title of webpage - format this in italics 

  4. Then write: Available at: URL - insert the URL for the webpage here  

  5. Then write: Accessed: date - put in the date you last accessed the webpage


Example: Shead, S. (2018) Inside Facebook's fight to beat Google and dominate in AI. Available at:   Accessed: Friday 16th November 2018.  

Report

Order

  1. Author(s) of report or organisation - write the surname of the author first followed by the initial of the first name

  2. Year of publication - you must place this in round brackets i.e. (2018)

  3. Title of report - format this in italic 

  4. Place of publication:

  5. Publisher

  6. If you are unable to find the place of publication and the publisher and the report is available online then skip stages 4 and 5 and go onto stage 7 and 8

  7. Write Available at: then insert the URL of the report

  8. Write (Accessed: date) in the bracket insert the date you accessed the report


Example: Ofcom (2018) UK Communications Market Report. Available at: (Accessed: 26th August, 2012).

Market Analysis
Newspaper

Newspaper Article

Order

  1. Author(s) of the article - write the surname of the author first followed by the initial of the forename 

  2. Year of publication - write this in round brackets

  3. Title of article - in single quotation marks

  4. Title of newspaper - format this in italic

  5. Day and month the article was published

  6. Page reference

  7. If you use a newspaper article online then skip step 6 and follow steps 8 and 9

  8. Write Available at: then insert the URL of the report

  9. Write (Accessed: date) in the bracket insert the date you accessed the newspaper article 

 
Example: Willshire, K. (2018) ‘French protester killed in accident at anti-fuel tax blockade.' The Guardian, 17th November, Available at:  (Accessed: 17th November, 2018). 

 

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